Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 1-10

The breeding biology, nest success, habitat and behavior of the endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Aves: Icteridae), at an Important Bird Area (IBA) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Mohr, Luciane R. da SilvaPérico, EduardoFonseca, Vanda S. da SilvaMohr, Alexsandro R

The Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, 1788), is a globally vulnerable icterid endemic to grasslands and open areas, and a priority species for research and conservation programs. This contribution provides information on the population size, habitat, behavior, breeding biology and nest success of X. flavus in two conservation units (CUs) in Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the Environmental Protection Area Banhado Grande, and the Wildlife Refuge Banhado dos Pachecos, classified as an “Important Bird Area”. Searches for X. flavuswere carried out mainly in open areas, the type of habitat favored by the species. Outside the breeding season individual behavior was recorded by the ad libitum method; during the breeding season, selected X. flavus pairs were observed following the sequence sampling method. The research areas were visited once a month, totaling approximately 530 hours of observations (September 2014 to June 2016) over 84 days, which included two breeding seasons. The species was observed across all months (not necessarily within the same year) and several X. flavusflocks were encountered, some with more than one hundred individuals (range = 2-137). Additionally, the behavior and feeding aspects, habitat use and breeding information on X. flavus were recorded. Two breeding colonies were found, and eleven nests were monitored. The estimated nesting success was 10% in Colony 1, but zero in Colony 2, where all eggs and nestlings were predated. Saffron-cowled Blackbirds were recorded in mixed flocks, mostly with Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819), P. virescens (Vieillot, 1819) and Xolmis dominicanus (Vieillot, 1823), the last also a globally endangered species. The collected information highlights the importance of CUs for the maintenance of X. flavus populations in the region. Maintenance of proper areas for feeding and breeding is necessary and urgent.[...](AU)

Texto completo