Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 351-359

Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil): establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

Costa, Igor DavidFreitas, Carlos Edwar de Carvalho

Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base) in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858) and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912); in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829) and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766). The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847), S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847). During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840), O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855) were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872) that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were mainly associated with high transparency and dissolved oxygen during the flood season.(AU)

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