Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Genetic profile and molecular resistance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil), at the border with Argentina and Paraguay

C. Dalla Bona, AnaF. Piccoli, Carlade S. Leandro, AndréKafka, RosineiL. Twerdochilib, AdrianaA. Navarro-Silva, Mário

The genetic variability of populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is often low due to the intense selection pressure caused by chemical control measures. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and adults of this mosquito to chemical insecticides, the frequency of the Val1016IIe mutation, and the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment in the urban area of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. The populations of A. aegypti in the southern and central regions of the city were resistant to the diagnostic dose of temephos 0.0162 ppm. Additionally, we detected difference in susceptibility in the northern population. The resistance ratios (RR95) were 3.8, 4.1, and 4.6 for the populations in the north, central, and south of the city, respectively. The entire population of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu is resistant to pyrethroids. The mortality rates are as follows: 72.2% for cypermethrin (CD: 146 mg i.a./m²) and 57% for deltamethrin (CD: 18 mg i.a./m²). These results corroborate the hypothesis that the mutated 1016Ile allele is present in all analyzed strata. Out of the 234 samples genotyped for the Val1016Ile mutation, 15% were homozygous dominant for the wild allele (Val/Val), 62% were heterozygous (Va/Ile) and 23% were homozygous for the recessive mutation (Ile/Ile). With respect to the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment, 93% of the sequences analyzed belonged to haplotype 1, and 7% belonged to haplotype 2. The genetic diversity was low, the fixation index was not significant, and gene flow was high. The control of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu using temephos and pyrethroids may be compromised because of the reduced vector susceptibility. Populations of A. aegypti, that undergoes a sudden reduction in effective population size and become resistant to pyrethroids may differ from the original population in vector capacity.

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