Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 2577-2592

Epizootiology, laboratory and virulence analyses during the emergency phase of the African swine fever eradication program in Brazil in 1978: a historic account

Maria de Paula Lyra, TâniaRosária Pereira Freitas, Tânia

After the first African swine fever (ASF) outbreak occurred in Brazil in 1978, an official laboratory for ASF diagnosis (ASFDL) was established. The current work reviews the efforts of the laboratory team to define an ASF diagnosis during the emergency phase of the ASF Eradication Program. From June to December 1978, 3,803 samples of pig tissue, blood and serum were analyzed. ASFDL first isolated the ASF virus (ASFV) from pig tissue samples from the Teresópolis municipality in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. During the first two months, ASFV was isolated from 130 of 320 (40.62%) pig samples analyzed by haemadsorption (HAD), indicating that the outbreak had reached 96 of 214 municipalities surveyed throughout the country in that period. The distribution of positive ASFV samples indicated the potential route of virus dispersal. Because of the rapidity of the actions implemented against ASF, the number of ASFV positive samples decreased from 48.36% in June to 33.53% in July, and then to 0% in August 1978. In parallel, ASFV antibody detection increased from 17.89% in June to 52.04% in August 1978. In the state of Paraná, a comparison of ASFV isolates with descriptions of the disease, and a rapid decrease in mortality rates suggested the occurrence of a low or moderate virulence ASFV strain. Establishment of ASFDL was crucial for the program, which eradicated ASFV from the co

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