Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Beneficial services of Glomalin and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in degraded soils in Brazil

Matos, Priscila SilvaSilva, Cristiane Figueira daDamian, Júnior MeloCerri, Carlos Eduardo PellegrinoPereira, Marcos GervasioZonta, Everaldo

ABSTRACT: Reducing soil degradation and its impacts on the environment have been one of the main challenges of the 21st century, exacerbated by a direct link between increases in the human population and soil degradation that raises current and future food security concerns. Despite this, experiences worldwide reveal that degraded land restoration projects have either achieved little success or failed. Thus, understanding the underlying causes and devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. Soil amelioration using beneficial microorganisms, particularly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is essential and pragmatic. Glomalin, a type of glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota, contributes to the mitigation of soil degradation. Moreover, AMF and glomalin are highly correlated with other soil physico-chemical parameters and are sensitive to changes in the environment. As a result of this, they have been recommended for monitoring the recovery of degraded soil or stages of soil degradation. In this review, we discuss the role of AMF and glomalin in the restoration of degraded soils, including improvements to the soil structure and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial activity, reduction of fertility loss, bioremediation, and mitigation of the effects of drought and saline stress. We highlight the research gaps and discuss the prospects. This knowledge will improve our understanding of the ecological conduct of glomalin and AMF, stimulate future research, and be useful to sustainable restoration of degraded lands. Furthermore, we discussed the challenges and obstacles in the legislation and future perspectives on the production of inoculants based on AMF in Brazil.

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