Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing between Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia siamensis envenomation

Su, Hung-YuanHuang, Shih-WeiMao, Yan-ChiaoLiu, Ming-WenLee, Kuo-HsinLai, Pei-FangTsai, Ming-Jen

Background:There are 6 species of venomous snakes in Taiwan. Two of them, Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) and Daboia siamensis (D. siamensis), can cause significant coagulopathy. However, a significant proportion of patients with snakebites cannot identify the correct snake species after envenomation, which hampers the application of antivenom. Hence, the differential diagnosis between the two snakebites by clinical presentations is important. This study aims to compare their clinical and laboratory features for the purpose of differential diagnosis between the two snakebites.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who arrived at the emergency department due to D. acutus or D. siamensis envenomation, between 2003 and 2016, in one medical center in eastern Taiwan. Since these snakebites are rare, we also included 3 cases reported from another hospital in central Taiwan.Results:In total, 15 patients bitten by D. acutus and 12 patients by D. siamensis were analyzed. Hemorrhagic bulla formation and the need for surgical intervention only presented for D. acutus envenomation cases (Both 53.3% vs. 0.0%, P= 0.003). As to laboratory features, lower platelet counts (20.0 × 103/μL [interquartile range, 14-66 × 103/μL] vs. 149.0 × 103/μL [102.3-274.3 × 103/μL], P = 0.001), lower D-dimer level (1423.4 μg/L [713.4-4212.3 μg/L] vs. 12,500.0 μg/L [2351.4-200,000 μg/L], P = 0.008), higher proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 103/μL) (80% vs. 16.7%, odds ratio (OR) = 20.0, 95% CI, 2.77-144.31; P = 0.002), and lower proportion of patients with extremely high D-dimer (> 5000 ng/mL) (16.7% vs. 66.7%, adjusted OR = 0.1 (95% CI, 0.01-0.69; P = 0.036) were found a...(AU)

Texto completo