Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

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Rattlesnake Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom induces oxidative stress on human erythrocytes

Meléndez-Martínez, DavidMuñoz, Juan ManuelBarraza-Garza, GuillermoCruz-Peréz, Martha SandraGatica-Colima, AnaAlvarez-Parrilla, EmilioPlenge-Tellechea, Luis Fernando

BackgroundGlobally, snake envenomation is a well-known cause of death and morbidity. In many cases of snakebite, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, hemorrhage and neurotoxicity are present. Some of these symptoms may be provoked by the envenomation itself, but others are secondary effects of the produced oxidative stress that enhances the damage produced by the venom toxins. The only oxidative stress effect known in blood is the change in oxidation number of Fe (from ferrous to ferric) in hemoglobin, generating methemoglobin but not in other macromolecules. Currently, the effects of the overproduction of methemoglobin derived from snake venom are not extensively recorded. Therefore, the present study aims to describe the oxidative stress induced by Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom using erythrocytes.MethodsHuman erythrocytes were washed and incubated with different Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom concentrations (0–640 μg/mL). After 24 h, the hemolytic activity was measured followed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, non-denaturing PAGE, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances determination.ResultsLow concentrations of venom (<10 μg/mL) generates oxyhemoglobin release by hemolysis, whereas higher concentrations produced a hemoglobin shift of valence, producing methemoglobin (>40 μg/mL). This substance is not degraded by proteases present in the venom. By infrared spectroscopy, starting in 80 μg/mL, we observed changes in bands that are associated with protein damage (1660 and 1540 cm−1) and lipid peroxidation (2960, 2920 and 1740 cm−1). Lipid peroxidation was confirmed by conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance determination, in which differences were observed between the control and erythrocytes treated with venom...(AU)

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