Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 1-11

Isolation of biologically active peptides from the venom of Japanese carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata

Kawakami, HirokoGoto, Shin GMurata, KazuyaMatsuda, HideakiShigeri, YasushiImura, TomohiroInagaki, HidetoshiShinada, Tetsuro

BackgroundMass spectrometry-guided venom peptide profiling is a powerful tool to explore novel substances from venomous animals in a highly sensitive manner. In this study, this peptide profiling approach is successfully applied to explore the venom peptides of a Japanese solitary carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Anthophila: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini). Although interesting biological effects of the crude venom of carpenter bees have been reported, the structure and biological function of the venom peptides have not been elucidated yet.MethodsThe venom peptide profiling of the crude venom of X. appendiculata was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. The venom was purified by a reverse-phase HPLC. The purified peptides were subjected to the Edman degradation, MS/MS analysis, and/or molecular cloning methods for peptide sequencing. Biological and functional characterization was performed by circular dichroism analysis, liposome leakage assay, and antimicrobial, histamine releasing and hemolytic activity tests.ResultsThree novel peptides with m/z 16508, 1939.3, and 1900.3 were isolated from the venom of X. appendiculata. The peptide with m/z 16508 was characterized as a secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homolog in which the characteristic cysteine residues as well as the active site residues found in bee PLA2s are highly conserved. Two novel peptides with m/z 1939.3 and m/z 1900.3 were named as Xac-1 and Xac-2, respectively. These peptides are found to be amphiphilic and displayed antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The potency was almost the same as that of mastoparan isolated from the wasp venom...(AU)

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