Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors in snakes: a brief overview

Campos, Patrícia CotaMelo, Lutiana Amaral deDias, Gabriel Latorre FortesFortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

The blood plasma of numerous snake species naturally comprises endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors, which primarily neutralize toxic phospholipases A2 that may eventually reach their circulation. This inhibitor type is generally known as snake blood phospholipase A2 inhibitors (sbPLIs). Most, if not all sbPLIs are oligomeric glycosylated proteins, although the carbohydrate moiety may not be essential for PLA2 inhibition in every case. The presently known sbPLIs belong to one of three structural classes namely sbPLI, sbPLI or sbPLI depending on the presence of characteristic C-type lectin-like domains, leucine-rich repeats or three-finger motifs, respectively. Currently, the most numerous inhibitors described in the literature are sbPLIs and sbPLIs, whereas sbPLIs are rare. When the target PLA2 is a Lys49 homolog or an Asp49 myotoxin, the sbPLI is denominated a myotoxin inhibitor protein (MIP). In this brief overview, the most relevant data on sbPLIs will be presented. Representative examples of sbPLIs and sbPLIs from two Old World Gloydius brevicaudus and Malayopython reticulatus and two New World Bothrops alternatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake species will be emphasized.(AU)

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