VETINDEX

Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

In vitro activity of phospholipase A 2 and of peptides from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom against amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi

A. C. Barros, GustavoV. Pereira, AndreiaC. Barros, LucianaLourenço Jr, AirtonA. Calvi, SueliD. Santos, LucileneBarraviera, BeneditoSeabra Ferreira Jr, Rui

Abstract Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the intracellular parasiteLeishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, and transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Since treatment is based on classical chemotherapeutics with significant side effects, the search for new drugs remains the greatest global challenge. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal effect ofCrotalus durissus terrificus venom fractions on promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. Methods Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) and a pool of peptide fraction ( 3 kDa) were purified from Crotalusvenom. Furthermore, promastigotes and peritoneal macrophages of mice infected by amastigotes were exposed to serial dilutions of the PLA 2 and peptides at intervals varying between 1.5625 g/mL and 200 g/mL. Both showed activity against promastigotes that varied according to the tested concentration and the time of incubation (24, 48 and 72 h). Results MTT assay for promastigotes showed IC 50 of 52.07 g/mL for PLA2 and 16.98 g/mL for the peptide fraction of the venom. The cytotoxicity assessment in peritoneal macrophages showed IC50 of 98 g/mL and 16.98 g/mL for PLA 2 and peptide by MTT assay, respectively. In peritoneal macrophages infected by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi amastigotes, the PLA 2 stimulated growth of parasites, and at higher doses reduced growth by 23 %. The peptide fraction prevented 43 % of the intracellular parasite growth at a dose of 16.98 g/mL, demonstrating the toxicity of this dose to macrophages. Both fractions stimulated H 2 O 2 production by macrophages but only PLA 2 was able to stimulate NO production. Conclusion We have demonstrated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of the PLA2 and peptide fraction ofCrotalus venom. The results encourage further studies to describe the metabolic pathways involved in cell death, as well as the prospecting of molecules with antiparasitic activity present in the peptide fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

Texto completo