Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 2-18

Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology: [review]

Morais, V. MMassaldi, H

Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animais. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions: aused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. ln the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost(AU)

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