Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 104-118

Resilient capacity of cattle to environmental challenges - An updated review

Madhusoodan, Aradotlu ParameshwarappaSejian, VeerasamyRashamol, Veettiparambil PandarathilSavitha, Sira TulasiramuBagath, MadiajaganKrishnan, GovindanBhatta, Raghavendra

t Livestock rearing plays an integral role in enablingsmall and marginal farmers to ensure their livelihood security,which prevents both the food insecurity and poverty. Amongthe livestock, large ruminants and in particular cattle plays asignificant role from economic perspectives. This review is anattempt to compile information pertaining to thermo-toleranceof cattle to heat stress challenges. Heat stress has seriousconsequences, which negatively influence cattle productioncausing severe economic burden to the cattle farmers. Theability of the cattle to perform normal biological functions invarious adverse environmental conditions denotes its resilientcapacity. The resilience capacity is determined by varioustraits which govern maintaining their body conformation,respiratory and cutaneous evaporative cooling mechanisms,hair coat, maintenance of metabolic rate, feed efficiency,tolerance to dehydration, production maintenance andreproductive efficiency. Breed differences were establishedfor climate resilience and the superiority of indigenous breedsover exotic animals were established in this aspect. Theresilience capacity of indigenous cattle based on changesassociated with both phenotypic and genotypic traits werereviewed and several biological markers, which reflect theability of cattle to survive in different climatic conditions,were highlighted. The significance of refining the existingbreed program for imparting climate resilience was projectedto identify breeds, which have the ability to survive indifferent agro-ecological zones. (AU)

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