Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 142-153

Advances in Cancer Diagnostics

Pawan, KumarRVS, Pawaiya

Malignant transformation of cells into cancer arises due to long term accumulation of genetic and epigenetic events. Early diagnosis of these transformations in cells can improve the prognosis of cancer cases. Cancer screening and surveillance methods include ultrasound, mammography, digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Other techniques such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (FISH, CSH), PCR, RT-PCR (real time- PCR), flow cytometry and microarray are used nowadays for diagnosis. Microarray technology is a new and efficient approach to extract data of biomedical relevance for a wide range of applications. In cancer research, it will provide high-throughput and valuable insights into differences in an individual’s tumor as compared with constitutional DNA, mRNA expression, and protein expression and activity. This review highlights the recent developments in cancer diagnostic technologies and describes the eventual use of these technologies for clinical and research applications.(AU)

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