Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

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Acute Lung Injury Syndrome (TRALI) in a dog possibly triggered by blood transfusion

Albernaz, Vinicius Gonzalez PeresGarofalo, Natache AroucaTeixeira Neto, Francisco JoséFabris, Isabella de AlmeidaQuitzan, Juliany Gomes

Background: Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are clinical syndromes, differing in severity, characterized by bilateral noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, usually associated with an underlying cause. Diagnosis is given by thoracic radiography and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio <300. The possible Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) occurs when ALI or ARDS signs (i.e. hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates) are found in patients without preexisting ALI that have received transfusion in the last 72 h. This case report describes a case of a canine patient that developed possible TRALI after a forelimb amputation and a whole blood transfusion.Case: A 10-year-old female dog, with necrotic and infected bite injuries on left forelimb was initially treated conservatively with topical and systemics antibiotics. Eventually, a forelimb amputation was required, due to the soft tissue necrosis. Pre-operative complete blood count, serum biochemistry and venous blood gas analysis showed mild changes, including anemia, leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, and increases in blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase. The patient was stable before surgery but required a post-operative whole blood transfusion to treat severe anemia. A crossmatch test was performed to reduce the possibility of transfusion reaction. Despite both surgery and hemotherapy went as expected, approximately eight hours after the transfusion, the patient developed deterioration of all vital signs, including hypotension and severe hypoxemia, with PaO2 /FiO2 <126 and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) < 90% on room air. Thoracic radiographies showed mixed pattern of bilateral pulmonary infiltration. The patient’s condition worsened with signs of respiratory failure, cyanosis and severe hemodynamic impairment. There was no improvement after administration of furosemide, hydrocortisone, vasoactives, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation.[...](AU)

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