Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

p. 01-10

The effect of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis exposure on animal health

McSpadden, KatelynCaires, KyleZanella, Ricardo

Background: Johnes disease is an incurable wasting condition that affects ruminant and non-ruminant animals. Each year, Johnes is responsible for losses in the billions of dollars in the United States cattle industry alone. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the microorganism responsible for Johnes disease. MAP can spread very fast among animals, and this patogen has been isolated across the world and in several different animal species including humans. Therefore, MAP is classified as having a major impact on both animal and human health, and therefore the economy. MAP has also been associated with Crohns disease in humans, which necessitates great concerns regarding public health. The objective of this literature review is to identify problems and challenges associated with this illness and highlight possible approaches to minimize the economic losses and the incidence of Johnes, two avenues to reduce human exposure with this pathogen. Review: Following ingestion and exposure to MAP, the bacterium will infect the host through the ileum and than it will proliferate inside of host-cells; MAP can therefore be considered an intracellular parasite. After infection, this pathogen goes to a latency period that can be from months to several years without causing the presence of clinical signs in the host. This bacteria can cause an inflammatory response in

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