Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

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Infecção fúngica mista por Sporothrix schenckii e Cryptococcus albidus em um canino

Madrid, Isabel MartinsFaria, Renata Osório deAntunes, Tatiana de ÁvilaBettanzos, Maria da GraçaCabana, Ângela LeitzkeMeireles, Mário Carlos Araujo

Background: The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii and the yeasts of the Cryptococcus complex are important fungal pathogens of humans and animals that cause sporotrichosis and cryptococcosis, respectively. Both fungi are saprophytes of soils rich in organic matter and infect the host through traumatic injuries and/or inhalation. Sporotrichosis has been recognized as an important disease in the small animal clinic and in public health. Cases of this mycosis in cats and dogs have been reported in various Brazilian States. Our research group diagnosed eleven cases of sporotrichosis in dogs in Rio Grande do Sul in a five-year period. On the other hand, clinical cases of cryptococcosis in dogs and cats have not often been described in Brazil. In addition, infections caused by non- neoformans species have rarely been reported throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe the first case of concomitant infection by Sporothrix schenckii and Cryptococcus albidus in a dog. Case: In 2008, a veterinary clinic of Rio Grande municipality received a 5-year-old female Dalmatian which had presented an increase of the nasal plan, sneezing, dyspnea and a serous nasal discharge for 30 days. Upon clinical examination, abnormalities in retal temperature, cardiopulmonary auscultation and frequency of the animal were not observed. The presence of an eritematous non-ulcerated mass partially occluding the airways was verified in the nasal cavity. Differential diagnosis included sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis and transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). Diagnosis confirmation was performed by laboratory tests which included radiographic, cytological and mycological analyses. The nasal radiograph revealed a mass of 20 mm in diameter with adjacent bone compromising. Ovoid and round cells suggestive of yeasts were found in cytology. Colonies with macroscopic and microscopic morphology compatible with Sporothrix schenckii and Cryptococcus albidus were obtained in mycological analysis. Confirmation of the species C. albidus was obtained by the API32 commercial system. Antifungal therapy with itraconazole at a 10 mg kg -1 oral dosage for 90 days was successfully performed, resulting in the regression of the lesions. Discussion: Sporotrichosis has been frequently diagnosed in cats and dogs in the south and southeast of Brazil. However, mixed infection cases with Sporothrix schenckii are rare. In Brazil, one case was described in a cat with sporotrichosis, demodicosis and pediculosis which was co-infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Mixed fungal infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and was described only in a dog in Canada that presented lesions similar to those reported in this study. Cryptococcosis cases in animals and humans caused by non-neoformans species with C. albidus and C. magnus have been described worldwide. Systemic, renal and cutaneous infections by C. albidus have been reported in dogs, cats and horses. The present study reports the first case of a concomitant infection of Sporothrix schenckii and Cryptococcus albidus in a dog, and warns small animal doctors of the importance of laboratory exams so that a final infectious disease diagnosis, especially of fungal infections, can be reached.(AU)

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