Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

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Dioctofimose em cães

Sousa, Antonio Augusto Rodrigues deSousa, Adriana Abreu Soares deCoelho, Maria Cristina Oliveira CardosoQuessada, Ana MariaFreitas, Maria Vitória Mendes deMoraes, Renan Fernandes Nascimento

Background: Dioctophyma renale or giant worm is a parasite that has hematophagous habits and it is found worldwide. It is most commonly observed in stray and wild domestic carnivores. It affects several wild and herbivore animals. Even though it is a zoonosis, it rarely affects humans. Its diagnosis is occasionally made during surgeries and necropsies, by the presence of eggs or the parasite itself in the urine. Its epidemiology, with a complex life cycle, starts with the eggs containing the first stage larvae, which are then ingested by its intermediate host, an aquatic oligochaete (annelid) (Lumbriculus variegatus) and the definitive host is infected by ingestion of this latter or its paratenic host, namely fish and frog. The purpose of this study was to report two Dioctophyma renale cases with different life cycles, one in the left inguinal region of a dog and the other one in an ulcerated tumor in the right I2 teat of a bitch. Case: The first case consisted of a 5-month old mongrel dog weighting 8 kg, whose owner’s main complaint was a large growth observed in the left inguinal region of the animal. No other alterations were identified at the general physical examination. An exploratory surgical procedure was immediately chosen, at which time the parasite was detected. The antibiotic prophylaxis used enrofloxacin 5 mg/kg and the pre-emptive analgesic was flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, both applied intramuscularly. Ketamine5 mg/kg associated with xylazine 2 mg/kg, administrated intravenously was used in the anesthesia, and its maintenance was made with ketamine. An incision was made to the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles and peritoneum in order to access the inguinal region, at which time the parasite was found. The second case was an 8-year-old mongrel bitch, not spayed and weighting 15 kg, which was taken to the Hospital of Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (UEMA), Brazil. At clinical examination, an increase in volume and the presence of an ulcer were observed in the right I2 abdominal teat. Based on this, regional mastectomy was indicated for T3, I1 and I2. The hemogram did not reveal any important alterations. The antibiotic prophylaxis used benzathine penicillin 40 mg/kg and the pre-emptive analgesic was flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, applied intramuscularly. Ketamine5 mg/kg associated with diazepam 0.5 mg/kg, administrated intravenously, was used for the induction of anesthesia. The anesthesia was maintained with halothane in a semi-closed circuit. An elliptical incision was made to the medium caudal line, with dilatation and ligation of the mammary artery, followed by removal of the teats. After surgery, the parasite was found upon incision of the part removed. During the entire transoperative procedure, the animals received 10 mL/ kg Ringer Lactate/hour. Discussion: The identification of the parasite was based on its morphological characteristics, particularly regarding size and color. The surgical findings were accidental. The parasite is identified during necropsy or when its eggs are found in urine, or when the parasite itself is eliminated. Excretory urography and ultrasound do not reveal the parasite, but they may indicate a renal dysfunction. Several parasites can be found in the same host. Only one female and one male were observed in each of the cases. The most efficient treatment is the surgical removal of the parasite and, in some cases, nephrotomy and nephrectomy are also indicated. The patients fully recovered from the condition. Organs must always be observed in procedures involving or not cavities.(AU)

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