Periódicos Brasileiros em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

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A new therherapeutic prrotocol f for dogs infectted with Trrypanosoma evansi

Howes, FláviaSilva, Aleksandro Schafer daAthayde, Cristiane de LimaCosta, Marcio MachadoCorrêa, Marcos Matoso BurgoTavares, Kaio Cesar SimianoMiletti, Luiz ClaudioLopes, Sonia Terezinha dos AnjosAmaralAnne Santos doSchmidt, Claudete

Background: Trypanosomosis is a disease caused by a flagellate protozoan known as Trypanosoma evansi, transmitted by hematophagous insects. It parasites showed a large diversity of mammalian hosts. Dogs may show clinical changes such as weight loss, progressive weakness, anorexia, anemia, intermittent fever, conjunctivitis, swelling of limbs and increased of superficial lymph nodes. Treatment of trypanosomosis relies on the use of diminazene aceturate which is effective for the treatment of disease in infected animals. However, a single dose of drug are not effective for horses, mules and dogs, since drug neither cross the blood-brain barrier or has insufficient doses to control the T. evansi infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to report the curative efficacy of a new therapeutic protocol, based on diminazene aceturate, for dogs infected with T. evansi. Case: The treatment against trypanosomosis was performed in a dog, male, two years old, from the municipality of Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil.. The animal showing clinical signs such as apathy, vomit, increase of left submandibular lymph node, edema of the left face and change of gait in the hind limbs when it was evaluated by veterinarians. The hematological and biochemical parameters revealed normocytic-hypochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Trypomastigotes of T. evansi were identified in blood smears stained by panoptic method. The parasitism by T. evansi was confirmed by blood inoculation in two rats (xenodiagnosis) and by PCR T. evansi-specific. The canine was treated with diminazene aceturate (intramuscular injection) using a dose of 3.5 mg kg-1 for 5 days at 24h of intervals. After treatment the dog showed clinical signs of health improvement, and clinical signs disappeared after the seventh day of treatment. The parasite was not found in blood smears after the third day of treatment and PCR was negative on days 30 and 50 post-treatment. During the treatment signs of drug intoxication were not observed, as well as hepatic and renal functions were not affected. The animal showed normal biochemical and hematological parameters after 30 days of treatment. Discussion: In this study, the treatment tested was effective, leading to the cure of the disease. Previously, the same protocol was used for cats experimentally infected with T. evansi, obtaining 85.7% (6/7) of curative efficacy. In a comparative study of doses of diminazene aceturate in rats infected with T. evansi, inefficiency and death of rats treated with a single dose of 3.5 and 7.0 mg kg-1 were observed. In contrast, the cure in rats occurred when animals received a dose of 3.5 and 7.0 mg kg-1 during five consecutive days. The return of the parasitemia after treatment may be related to the impossibility of the medicament pass through the blood-brain barrier or the doses is insufficient. Our data reveal that five-dose protocol obtained higher efficiency because it provided greater passage of drug molecules through blood-brain barrier, which could eliminate the parasite from brain. After treatment, all clinical signs disappeared, biochemical and hematological parameters returned to normal levels, allowing us to conclude that this new protocol tested was effective to cure of this disease in dogs.(AU)

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